20 Nutrient Deficiencies That Can Make You Depressed

Being depressed doesn’t mean you’re weak.

It’s not a defect in your personality. 

As I’m sure you know, it’s often caused by physiological changes in your body and brain.

So you need to think of it like any other illness. 

If you have a broken bone, you need to wear a cast to stabilize the bone while it heals. 

And if you have depression, you need to be kind to yourself, as you seek and address the underlying root causes. 

The good news is that you’re not powerless. 

I used to think that I’d be depressed forever.

That my depression was simply genetic, and I couldn’t do anything about it. 

In fact, I accepted that notion for a while.

I felt defeated and hopeless, and thought I'd feel that way for my entire life.

I told myself I’d simply have to rely on drugs to survive because that’s just “how I’m wired”. 

But then one day, I changed my mind and decided that I’d had enough. 

And I was actually going to get to the bottom of it instead of just accepting it.

I took action and searched far and wide for safer and healthier solutions to deal with my depression.

I came across research that wasn’t even considered by my psychiatrist.

Therapies that they said wouldn’t work.

But then they did.

And I overcome my depression for good. 

One of my most important discoveries was that nutrient deficiencies can make your depression worse. 

And they could even be the root cause of it. 

It made so much sense.

But why hadn’t my doctors ever brought it up?

I delved deeper into the scientific literature, and I found MANY nutrient deficiencies that can contribute to depression.

I started increasing my intake of them.

And I got better.

Much better.

This new post includes 20 nutrient deficiencies that could be making you feel depressed.

It boggles my mind that many conventional psychiatrists ignore this research.

But that doesn’t mean you need to. 

Read on to learn more. 

5-nutrients-that-relieve-depression-that-people-dont-realize-1.jpg

1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3s fatty acids are the highest quality fats for the brain and increasing your intake of them is one of the most impactful actions you can take to fight depression.

Several studies have shown that depressive patients have lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids (1-3).

Researchers even conducted a meta-analysis of 14 studies, and they found that levels of omega-3 fatty acids were significantly lower in people with depression (4). 

They concluded that having a deficiency in omega-3 fatty acids is a “contributing factor to mood disorders” (5). 

It’s important to consume enough omega-3 fatty acids because they are essential fats that your body cannot produce itself.

Omega-3 fatty acids are found primarily in cold water fish, including:

nutrient-nutritional-deficiencies-make-you-depressed-cause-vitamins-minerals-link-associated-related-between-diet-nutrition-depression-what-supplements-should-i-take-for-low-levels-food-plan-list-mental-health-wellness-importance-best-treating-cure-help-reduce-fight-beat-healthy-good-managing-against-improve-study-eating-combat-can-natural-best-mood-antidepressant-otc-postpartum.jpeg
  • Salmon

  • Black cod

  • Sablefish

  • Sardines

  • Herring

These foods are included in my Free Grocery Shopping Guide for Optimal Mental Health.

Unfortunately, most people don't consume enough omega-3 fatty acids through their diet.

That’s why I recommend supplementing with krill oil, a special kind of fish oil that contains the essential omega-3 fatty acids

I take this one.

I feel more depressed when I stop taking it. I actually notice the difference.

This isn’t surprising because plenty of research shows that omega-3 supplements are effective at treating clinical depression – just as effective as antidepressants drugs – because they lower inflammation in the brain (6-10). 

2. Vitamin B12

Lack of understanding of B12 is one of the greatest tragedies of modern medicine.
— Dr. James Greenblatt, Integrative Psychiatrist

Having sufficient levels of Vitamin B12 is necessary for optimal brain and mental health.  

Unfortunately, a deficiency is very common, especially in older individuals and vegetarians and vegans.

And even if you eat meat and you’re young, you may still have a deficiency. 

Poor gut health and even psychiatric medications can cause a deficiency.

In fact, it’s estimated that almost 40% of Americans are deficient today.

Numerous studies have shown that having a deficiency in Vitamin B12 leads to symptoms of depression (16-22). 

And B12 levels tend to be significantly lower in people who are depressed (13). 

In one study, subjects with Vitamin B12 deficiency were 2 times as likely to be severely depressed as non-deficient subjects (15). 

Even a mild decrease in B12 levels is associated with mood disturbances (14). 

Luckily, there are steps you can take to make sure you’re not deficient. 

Vitamin B12 is found primarily in animal foods, and beef liver is an excellent source. I take these beef liver capsules because I don’t like the taste of liver.

You may also want to supplement with Vitamin B12 because studies show that B12 supplementation significantly lowers homocysteine levels and reduces depressive symptoms (23-24). 

If you decide to supplement, avoid the semisynthetic version of B12 (cyanocobalamin) and instead take the methylated form (methylcobalamin or methyl-B12). 

Methyl-B12 is better absorbed and more biologically active.

I take this B complex supplement regularly, and it includes methyl-B12.

3. Vitamin D (and Vitamin K2)

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that your skin synthesizes when exposed to the sun.

Every tissue in your body has Vitamin D receptors, including the brain, so a deficiency can lead to costly physiological and psychological consequences, including depression.

Researchers have found a very strong link between Vitamin D deficiency and depression (27-28). 

The lower your Vitamin D levels, the more symptoms of depression you are likely to have (35). 

Unfortunately, reports indicate that Vitamin D deficiency is widespread and a major health problem globally (25). 

nutrient-nutritional-deficiencies-make-you-depressed-cause-vitamins-minerals-link-associated-related-between-diet-nutrition-depression-what-supplements-should-i-take-for-low-levels-food-plan-list-mental-health-wellness-importance-best-treating-cure-help-reduce-fight-beat-healthy-good-managing-against-improve-study-eating-combat-can-natural-best-mood-antidepressant-otc-postpartum.jpeg

Researchers estimate that 50 percent of the general population is at risk of Vitamin D deficiency (26). 

It’s best to get your Vitamin D by going outside and getting sunlight.

It’s especially important to make sure you get some sunlight in the morning to set your circadian rhythm. 

But most people still don’t get enough Vitamin D from the sun, especially during the winter.

That’s why I recommend using a Vitamin D lamp. I use this one.

Or you can take a Vitamin D supplement

I now prefer sunlight and the lamp to get my Vitamin D, but research does show that taking a Vitamin D3 supplement is effective at reducing symptoms of depression and seasonal affective disorder (29-31). 

This is likely because Vitamin D increases the production of numerous neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine (32-34). 

Lastly, if you decide to supplement with Vitamin D3, you should consider taking it with Vitamin K2

A recent study found that Vitamin K2 reduces depression in animals (36). 

And Vitamin K2 is known to improve brain function in humans (37-38). 

4. Magnesium

Magnesium is a vital mineral that participates in more than 300 biochemical reactions in your body.

Unfortunately, a lot of people are deficient in magnesium today.  

This is a shame because magnesium is absolutely essential for the proper functioning of your nervous system and optimal neurotransmitter activity. 

Research shows that low magnesium levels contribute and worsen many neuropsychiatric problems, including depression (42). 

In fact, researchers have found that people with depression have lower magnesium levels than healthy people (49). 

They’ve also found a significant association between very low magnesium intake and depression (43). 

On top of this, animal research shows that removing magnesium from their diet results in depressive-like symptoms (50). 

So if you’re struggling with depression, it’s very important to make sure you’re getting enough magnesium so that you don’t have a deficiency.

Luckily, there are a number of ways to do this. 

First, make sure you’re eating magnesium-rich foods on a regular basis, including:

These foods are included in my Free Grocery Shopping Guide for Optimal Mental Health.

Epsom salt baths are another great way to increase your body’s intake of magnesium

I also highly recommend a high-quality magnesium supplement

A number of studies have concluded that magnesium supplementation can reduce depressive symptoms in humans – sometimes within 7 days (44-48). 

I now take this magnesium threonate supplement before bed. It’s the best form of magnesium for the brain.

Since most people are deficient, magnesium is one of the three supplements that I think everyone should be taking.

5. Zinc

Zinc is an essential mineral for mental health.

Like magnesium, it plays a key role in neurotransmission and nervous system functioning.

Mounting evidence suggests a link between zinc deficiency and the development and severity of depression (66-68, 76).  

Depressed patients tend to have lower levels of zinc. And as their zinc levels drop, their depressive symptoms get worse (81-84). 

nutrient-nutritional-deficiencies-make-you-depressed-cause-vitamins-minerals-link-associated-related-between-diet-nutrition-depression-what-supplements-should-i-take-for-low-levels-food-plan-list-mental-health-wellness-importance-best-treating-cure-help-reduce-fight-beat-healthy-good-managing-against-improve-study-eating-combat-can-natural-best-mood-antidepressant-otc-postpartum.jpg

Unfortunately, it’s estimated that 2 billion people in the world are deficient in zinc, and several studies show that even subclinical deficiency of zinc impairs brain function in children and adults (63-65). 

So, if you struggle with depression, it’s quite possible that you’re deficient, and you’ll definitely want to optimize your zinc levels. 

Some of the best food sources of zinc include:

These foods are included in my Free Grocery Shopping Guide for Optimal Brain and Mental Health.

However, if you’re deficient like I was, I recommend taking a high-quality zinc supplement, at least for a short period of time. 

A meta-analysis and several studies have concluded that zinc supplementation has antidepressant effects and significantly reduces symptoms of depression. One way it improves mood is by significantly increasing BDNF levels (69-75, 77-80).

I created and take the Optimal Zinc supplement to make sure my zinc levels are optimal. 

Check out my previous post all about zinc if you’re interested in discovering more steps you can take to increase your zinc levels.

Click here to subscribe

6. Folate

Folate (Vitamin B9) is an essential B vitamin that plays a key role in methylation, one of the most important processes in your body and brain for optimal energy and nervous system function.

Researchers have found that if you are depressed, you likely have lower levels of folate circulating in your blood, and people with low blood folate are at greater risk for developing depression (55-56). 

Good dietary sources of natural folate include: 

  • Leafy greens

  • Asparagus

  • Broccoli

  • Cauliflower

  • Strawberries

  • Avocado

  • Beef liver

  • Poultry

These foods are included in my Free Grocery Shopping Guide for Optimal Brain and Mental Health.

However, eating folate-rich foods sometimes isn’t enough. In fact, many people do not get enough folate from food because cooking and food processing destroy natural folates (54).

And supplementation is often needed. 

If you decide to supplement with folate, avoid synthetic folic acid, which is commonly found in standard multivitamins. Instead, you should take a biologically active form of folate (methylfolate or 5-MTHF). 

Methylfolate supplements are almost seven times more effective than synthetic folic acid at increasing folate levels. Regular synthetic folic acid has been shown to be quickly cleared from the central nervous system and poorly transported into the brain (51-53). 

On top of this, many people have genetic mutations in the enzyme that converts folic acid into methylfolate in the body. Therefore, folic acid is a waste and can actually cause harm if you have this genetic mutation.

And the research backs up the use of methylfolate.

In one study, patients with depression took methylfolate for 6 months, and they witnessed a significant improvement in their depressive symptoms (57). 

Researchers have even suggested that folate supplementation should be a first-line treatment for depression (58). 

Methylfolate can be effective at treating depression because it helps lower homocysteine levels, helps produce serotonin and dopamine, and stimulates serotonin receptors in the brain (59-62). 

Methylfolate is included in this B vitamin complex that I take regularly. Or you can take it separately if you’d like. 

7. Vitamin B6

Having a deficiency in Vitamin B6 can also contribute to your depression.

It’s a key nutrient that supports your entire nervous system.

It can boost your mood because it plays a key role in the production of neurotransmitters in your brain, including serotonin and dopamine. It also lowers homocysteine

Research shows that people with depressive symptoms tend to have low levels of Vitamin B6 (85-87). 

A Vitamin B6 deficiency also contributes to chronic inflammation, which is one of the main underlying root causes of depression (88). 

nutrient-nutritional-deficiencies-make-you-depressed-cause-vitamins-minerals-link-associated-related-between-diet-nutrition-depression-what-supplements-should-i-take-for-low-levels-food-plan-list-mental-health-wellness-importance-best-treating-cure-help-reduce-fight-beat-healthy-good-managing-against-improve-study-eating-combat-can-natural-best-mood-antidepressant-otc-postpartum.jpg

Fortunately, consuming more Vitamin B6 can help. 

One study found that women that eat more foods containing Vitamin B6 have a lower risk of depression (89). 

Some of the best food sources of Vitamin B6 include potatoes, bananas and chicken. 

But supplementation is often necessary to see quick improvements. 

One study found that supplementing with Vitamin B6 can reduce depressive symptoms by lowering homocysteine levels (90). 

When I took antidepressants for depression, multiple functional and integrative doctors suggested I supplement with Vitamin B6.

This is because these medications can actually further deplete Vitamin B6, increasing depression in the long run. 

Vitamin B6 is included in the Optimal Zinc supplement.

8. Vitamin C

Having low levels of Vitamin C can also make you feel depressed.

Researchers have found that poor Vitamin C status is associated with increased symptoms of depression (105). 

Animal research also shows that a Vitamin C deficiency can lead to low levels of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, which causes mice to act depressed (106-107). 

As you probably know, Vitamin C can be found in foods such as peppers, citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, tomatoes, and berries. These foods are included in my Free Grocery Shopping Guide for Optimal Mental Health.

In addition to getting Vitamin C from fruits and vegetables, I take at least 1 gram of this Vitamin C every day. 

I’ve experimented with taking up to 10 grams daily, and it definitely improved my mood and reduced my stress levels, especially when I was coming off antidepressants

Research backs this up, showing that supplementing with Vitamin C can actually improve mood in both unhealthy and healthy individuals (95, 102-103). 

Various other studies show that Vitamin C supplements reduce stress and anxiety and decrease the severity of depression (96-101, 104).

Studies even show that Vitamin C can increase the effectiveness of antidepressants (108-109). 

9. Thiamine

Thiamine, also known as Vitamin B1, is an essential water-soluble nutrient that cannot be made by the body. 

It’s used in nearly every cell in the body and especially important for supporting energy levels.

It’s also required by nerve cells and other supporting cells in the nervous system (167). 

Research shows that lower levels of Vitamin B1 are associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms (168).

Vitamin B1 deficiency is also known to lead to irritability and symptoms of depression (170). 

Some doctors and researchers believe that postpartum depression is sometimes simply a Vitamin B1 deficiency (169). 

Luckily, consuming more Vitamin B1 can help.

nutrient-nutritional-deficiencies-make-you-depressed-cause-vitamins-minerals-link-associated-related-between-diet-nutrition-depression-what-supplements-should-i-take-for-low-levels-food-plan-list-mental-health-wellness-importance-best-treating-cure-help-reduce-fight-beat-healthy-good-managing-against-improve-study-eating-combat-can-natural-best-mood-antidepressant-otc-postpartum.jpg

A randomized, double-blind clinical trial found that Vitamin B1 supplementation reduces symptoms of depression within 6 weeks (171). 

And another concluded that Vitamin B1 supplementation improves mood, reduces brain fog, and speeds up reaction time (172).

In fact, researchers have even found that subjects’ mood improves if the amount of Vitamin B1 in their blood increases, and that the opposite occurs if the amount of Vitamin B1 in their blood decreases (173). 

Benfotiamine is the best supplemental form of Vitamin B1. It’s included in this B complex that I take. 

Healthy food sources of Vitamin B1 include green peas, beef liver, asparagus, pecans, spinach, sunflower seeds, macadamia nuts, oranges, cantaloupe and eggs. 

These foods are included in my Free Grocery Shopping Guide for Optimal Mental Health.

10. Carnitine

Carnitine is an amino acid found in nearly every cell of the body. It plays a vital role in the production of energy.

Researchers have found significantly lower levels of carnitine in patients with depression. And their low carnitine levels are associated with the severity of their depression (11-12, 174-175). 

Carnitine is mainly found in meat, fish and poultry.

But you can also supplement with it. 

I recommend Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR), an acetylated form of carnitine. It’s best supplemental form of carnitine. 

It’s often used as a natural brain booster because it increases alertness and provides support to brain cells.

But it’s also been shown to be very effective at quickly improving mood and treating depression (179-182). 

Six randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that ALCAR is better at treating depression than placebo (177). 

And two other studies found that ALCAR improved depressive symptoms in patients with chronic depression, and it was just as effective as antidepressant medications, but with less side effects (176, 178). 

ALCAR is included in the Optimal Brain supplement

Click here to subscribe

11. Iron

Iron is a trace mineral found in every living cell in our bodies.

It carries oxygen to all parts of your body, and low levels can leave you feeling tired, pale, irritable and foggy

Sounds like depression doesn’t it?

Several studies show that iron deficiency increases the risk of developing depression and increases the severity of depression (184-186, 188-190). 

nutrient-nutritional-deficiencies-make-you-depressed-cause-vitamins-minerals-link-associated-related-between-diet-nutrition-depression-what-supplements-should-i-take-for-low-levels-food-plan-list-mental-health-wellness-importance-best-treating-cure-help-reduce-fight-beat-healthy-good-managing-against-improve-study-eating-combat-can-natural-best-mood-antidepressant-otc-postpartum.jpg

Researchers have also conducted a meta-analysis and found that high iron intake reduces the chance of developing depression (183). 

In one study, iron supplementation resulted in a 25% improvement in depressive symptoms (187). 

Despite this, I don’t actually recommend supplementing with iron though because some research suggests that too much iron can cause health problems.

It’s definitely preferable to get your iron from food. 

I make sure I get enough iron simply by taking these grass-fed beef liver capsules.

Beef liver is one of the best sources of iron, but I don’t like the taste, so I go with the capsules. You can get them here or here.

Other good sources of iron include:

These foods are included in my Free Grocery Shopping Guide for Optimal Mental Health.

12. Selenium

Selenium is an essential trace mineral that is important for many bodily processes that affect your brain and mental health.

Researchers have found that depression is associated with low levels of selenium (191). 

But supplementing with selenium has been shown to significantly increase selenium levels and improve symptoms of depression (192). 

Other research shows that selenium intake is associated with a general elevation of mood (193). 

Brazil nuts are the richest dietary source of selenium, but it can also be found in wild-caught seafood, pastured chicken and eggs, and grass-fed meat.

I also make sure I’m not deficiency in selenium by taking selenomethionine, which is a highly-absorbable form of selenium.

13. Riboflavin

Riboflavin, also known as Vitamin B2, plays a key role in energy metabolism throughout your entire body.  

nutrient-nutritional-deficiencies-make-you-depressed-cause-vitamins-minerals-link-associated-related-between-diet-nutrition-depression-what-supplements-should-i-take-for-low-levels-food-plan-list-mental-health-wellness-importance-best-treating-cure-help-reduce-fight-beat-healthy-good-managing-against-improve-study-eating-combat-can-natural-best-mood-antidepressant-otc-postpartum.jpg

As a result, a Vitamin B2 deficiency can affect the entire body, leading to low energy, weight gain, and depression.

In fact, lower levels of Vitamin B2 have been found in people with depression (91). 

Researchers have also found that Vitamin B2 consumption decreases risk of postpartum depression (92). 

Healthy food sources of Vitamin B2 include pastured eggs, leafy vegetables, beef liver, mushrooms, sunflower seeds, and almonds

These foods are included in my Free Grocery Shopping Guide for Optimal Mental Health.

If you’d like, you can also supplement with Vitamin B2.

Studies show that supplementing with Vitamin B2 helps lower homocysteine and reduces depressive symptoms (93-94). 

Vitamin B2 is included in the Optimal Zinc supplement. 

14. Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a coenzyme and antioxidant located primarily in the mitochondria. It has numerous known health benefits and plays a critical role in producing energy for the body.

CoQ10 is produced within the body, but it’s also found within food and can be supplied to the body through food or supplementation. It resembles a fat-soluble vitamin.

Meat and fish are the richest sources of dietary CoQ10, including beef, pork, chicken heart, and chicken liver. Nuts and some oils also contain some CoQ10 (110). 

Research shows that CoQ10 levels are reduced in people with depression and chronic fatigue (111). 

One study also found that CoQ10 regulates serotonin levels and depressive symptoms in fibromyalgia patients (117). 

CoQ10 supplementation has also been shown to improve fatigue and reduce depression symptom severity (112-114). 

It also displays antidepressant-like activity in animals (115-116). 

Ubiquinol is the best supplemental form of CoQ10 that is absorbed by the body. It can be used if you have a CoQ10 deficiency. I took CoQ10 when I was on antidepressants and for a short while after coming off them. 

15. Dihomo-Gamma-Linolenic Acid

Dihomo-Gamma-Linolenic Acid (DGLA) is an uncommon fatty acid.

nutrient-nutritional-deficiencies-make-you-depressed-cause-vitamins-minerals-link-associated-related-between-diet-nutrition-depression-what-supplements-should-i-take-for-low-levels-food-plan-list-mental-health-wellness-importance-best-treating-cure-help-reduce-fight-beat-healthy-good-managing-against-improve-study-eating-combat-can-natural-best-mood-antidepressant-otc-postpartum.jpg

It’s made in the body by the elongation of Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA).

But small amounts can also be found in animal products (118). 

Last year, researchers found that people with depression are more likely to have low levels of DGLA levels (121). 

And increasing DGLA levels may lower the risk of developing depression (122). 

DGLA also has anti-inflammatory effects in the body (119). 

So it makes sense that levels would be low in depressed individuals because an increasing amount of evidence suggests that depression is a chronic inflammatory disease. 

DGLA can be increased by supplementing with dietary GLA (120). 

GLA can be found in Borage Oil, Evening Primrose Oil and Blackcurrant Seed Oil (123). 

Click here to subscribe

16. Inositol

Inositol is a naturally-occurring molecule found in nearly all plants and animals. It plays a key role in various biological processes.

The brain has the highest concentration of inositol, where it plays an important role making neurotransmitters (124). 

Inositol can be found in many foods, particularly fruit, especially cantaloupe and oranges (125). 

It used to be considered a B Vitamin, called Vitamin B8. But it currently is no longer considered an essential nutrient because your body can produce inositol from glucose (126). 

But I’m including it in this list anyway because individuals with depression have very low levels of inositol in their brains (127-129). 

And inositol supplementation has been shown to increase inositol levels and help treat depression (130, 132). 

It can also reduce symptoms of depression in women with premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (131, 133). 

It’s even been shown to help patients who have discontinued their antidepressant medication (134). 

I took high doses of this inositol powder when weening off psychiatric medication.

I now take a normal amount found in this B complex.

Check out my full post about inositol to learn more about the benefits. 

Fun fact: Inositol is also used as a stand-in for cocaine in television shows and movies. 

17. Manganese

Manganese is an important trace mineral for human health. It acts as a cofactor, helping many enzymes carry out their functions in the body.

nutrient-nutritional-deficiencies-make-you-depressed-cause-vitamins-minerals-link-associated-related-between-diet-nutrition-depression-what-supplements-should-i-take-for-low-levels-food-plan-list-mental-health-wellness-importance-best-treating-cure-help-reduce-fight-beat-healthy-good-managing-against-improve-study-eating-combat-can-natural-best-mood-antidepressant-otc-postpartum.jpg

Research shows that having low levels of manganese can contribute to the development of depression (135). 

One study found that depressed patients had significantly lower levels of “manganese superoxide dismutase”, which is a manganese-dependent enzyme (136). 

Researchers have also found that women with higher manganese intake had a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms (137). 

Hazelnuts and macadamia nuts contain high levels of manganese, while leafy green vegetables, tea, chocolate and some fruits contain moderate levels (139). 

However, it’s important to note that you shouldn’t consume too much manganese.

In excess, manganese is neurotoxic and can lead to manganism, a neurodegenerative disorder that causes dopaminergic neuronal death and symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease (138). 

So I definitely don’t recommend supplementing with large doses of manganese. 

The small amount of manganese in Optimal Antiox is fine though. It’s what I take. 

18. Glutamine

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body, suggesting that it’s very important.

It’s also one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood-brain barrier.

Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid, meaning the body can usually produce sufficient amounts of it. But sometimes the body uses up so much glutamine that it becomes necessary to obtain it from the diet or supplements, particularly during periods of illness, stress, inflammation and injuries (156-157). 

Researchers have found that depressed adults have reduced levels of glutamine (158). 

And glutamine deficiency has been shown to increase depressive-like behaviour in animals (159). 

But glutamine supplementation has “clear anti-depressive properties” and has been shown to improve mood (160-161). 

High levels of glutamine can be found in protein-rich foods such as beef, chicken, fish and eggs. Beets, cabbage, spinach, carrots, parsley, brussel sprouts, celery, kale and fermented foods like miso also contain some glutamine.

These foods are included in my Free Grocery Shopping Guide for Optimal Mental Health.

Glutamine is also available in supplement form. 

Glutamine was one of the main supplements that helped me heal my leaky gut, but I no longer need to take it regularly. 

19. Tryptophan

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that cannot be produced by the body. It must be consumed through diet or by taking supplements. 

Some healthy foods that contain tryptophan include bananas, chicken, turkey and dark chocolate (140). 

nutrient-nutritional-deficiencies-make-you-depressed-cause-vitamins-minerals-link-associated-related-between-diet-nutrition-depression-what-supplements-should-i-take-for-low-levels-food-plan-list-mental-health-wellness-importance-best-treating-cure-help-reduce-fight-beat-healthy-good-managing-against-improve-study-eating-combat-can-natural-best-mood-antidepressant-otc-postpartum.png

Tryptophan helps produce the neurotransmitter serotonin. It’s converted to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in the brain, which then produces serotonin (141-142). 

Researchers have found that depressed patients have significantly lower levels of tryptophan in their blood than healthy control subjects (143-144). 

Studies also show that depressed patients have a decreased ratio of tryptophan to neutral amino acids in their blood. This suggests that tryptophan availability to the brain is likely reduced in depressed patients (145-146). 

Personally, supplementing with tryptophan never helped me. In fact, it always seemed to make me worse. It gave me asthma and acne and increased my depression.  

This is because depressed patients sometimes have problems creating serotonin from tryptophan. Instead, they create other metabolites from tryptophan, such as quinolinic acid, which can be toxic. For depressed patients like me, tryptophan supplementation won’t help, and may actually make their depression worse (150-151). 

However, some people do see their mood improve when they increase their intake of tryptophan. So it shouldn’t be completely disregarded. 

There are studies that show that consuming a high tryptophan diet and consuming additional dietary tryptophan can increase mood and lead to significantly less depressive symptoms (152-154). 

So supplementing with tryptophan is worth a shot if you’re struggling with depression and haven’t tried it yet. Just be aware of possible side effects. 

If you want, you can also try supplementing with 5-HTP instead of tryptophan. 5-HTP is the direct precursor to serotonin. 

5-HTP is included in this supplement

20. Glutathione

Glutathione is a small peptide made up of 3 important amino acids – glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine – each of which have several important roles in the human body.

Glutathione is found in the food supply and within the human body, where it acts as an antioxidant. It is used by every cell in the body.

It’s technically not an “essential nutrient” because the body can create it.

However, it’s still very important, and a glutathione deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, which is thought to be involved in a number of diseases, including depression.

Studies show that patients with depression have significantly lower levels of glutathione. And the lower a person’s glutathione levels, the more depressed they are likely to be (162-164). 

Some practitioners and researchers have found that increasing glutathione intake and levels can successfully treat depression (165). 

Glutathione is also able to prevent behavioural depression in animals (166). 

It’s important to note that standard glutathione supplements are not very effective at increasing glutathione levels because they are not well absorbed by the body.

But I have found that high-quality liposomal glutathione supplements are effective. 

N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is another tried-and-true way of increasing glutathione levels because it’s the direct precursor to glutathione

Garlic, asparagus, and cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and kale, can also help boost glutathione levels, but liposomal glutathione and NAC supplements are more powerful. 

Other supplements that have been shown to help increase and maintain optimal glutathione levels include Selenium, Alpha Lipoic Acid, and S-adenosyl-methionine (Sam-E)

Enjoy This Article? You Might Also Like My FREE Food Guide for Optimal Brain and Mental Health!

Click here to subscribe

Live Optimally,

Jordan Fallis

Connect with me

References:

(1) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20452573

(2) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16741195

(3) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4369545/

(4) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20452573

(5) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16741195

(6) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805797

(7) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20586692

(8) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439549

(9) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3976923/

(10) https://examine.com/supplements/fish-oil/

(11) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24611884

(12) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5470074/

(13) https://examine.com/supplements/vitamin-b12/

(14) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2781043/

(15) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10784463

(16) https://examine.com/supplements/vitamin-b12/

(17) https://wellnessmama.com/36091/vitamin-b12-deficiency/

(18) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22276208

(19) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2781043/

(20) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10784463

(21) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3262813/

(22) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24339839

(23) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24339839

(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21771745

(25) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19543765

(26) https://goo.gl/mzJn79

(27) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27750060

(28) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23377209

(29) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10888476

(30) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22191178

(31) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4011048/

(32) https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150225094109.htm

(33) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9011759

(34) https://examine.com/supplements/vitamin-d/

(35) https://examine.com/supplements/vitamin-d/

(36) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28068285

(37) https://goo.gl/EXPCRN

(38) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24108469

(39) http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00048670802534408

(40) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10746516

(41) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9861593

(42) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27807012

(43) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25748766

(44) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2067759

(45) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19271419

(46) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1672392

(47) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23950577

(48) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16542786

(49) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19780403

(50) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18825946

(51) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5314166

(52) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14769778

(53) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17522618

(54) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12493090

(55) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10967371?dopt=Abstract

(56) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15671130

(57) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1974941

(58) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1810582/

(59) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21771745

(60) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18950248

(61) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19796883

(62) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212058

(63) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22664333

(64) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21939673

(65) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22673824

(66) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868572/

(67) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20689416

(68) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18655800

(69) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15145706

(70) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18766297

(71) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24621065

(72) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/

(73) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21798601

(74) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24130605

(75) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16491668

(76) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20689416

(77) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21798601

(78) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18191237

(79) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3022308/

(80) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24621065

(81) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20013161

(82) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20493532

(83) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9276075

(84) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8071476

(85) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15479988

(86) http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-B6

(87) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15479988

(88) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23550784

(89) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26648330

(90) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21771745

(91) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22081620

(92) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16815556

(93) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21771745

(94) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1578091

(95) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20688474

(96) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26353411

(97) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24511708

(98) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3599706/

(99) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12208645

(100) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376513/

(101) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376513/

(102) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3599706/

(103) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12208645

(104) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376513/

(105) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25835231

(106) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23106783

(107) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3325330/

(108) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376513/

(109) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3599706/

(110) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20301015

(111) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20010493

(112) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22467846

(113) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4414830/

(114) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25603363

(115) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23313551

(116) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23928691

(117) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24525646

(118) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dihomo-%CE%B3-linolenic_acid

(119) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dihomo-%CE%B3-linolenic_acid

(120) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dihomo-%CE%B3-linolenic_acid

(121) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28235735

(122) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28235735

(123) https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/128/9/1411/4722487

(124) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inositol

(125) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7416064

(126) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inositol

(127) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mrm.21709/full

(128) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15953489

(129) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9247405

(130) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24424706

(131) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hup.1241/abstract

(132) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0062698/

(133) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22031267

(134) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7726322

(135) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25712638

(136) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25171019

(137) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28110159

(138) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manganese#Biological_role

(139) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4516557/

(140) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2908021/

(141) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21071157

(142) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28118532

(143) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2521647

(144) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016517819390102M

(145) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2521647

(146) https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/492559

(147) https://goo.gl/5rBaMM

(148) https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/492559

(149) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29109914

(150) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26654774

(151) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4955923/

(152) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393508/

(153) https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01706.x

(154) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11869656

(155) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8775762

(156) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3425386/

(157) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2668703

(158) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17283286

(159) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3633711/

(160) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8289407

(161) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1020692

(162) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964749/

(163) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21552194

(164) https://academic.oup.com/ijnp/article/14/1/123/657694

(165) https://goo.gl/hcyoey

(166) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7972287

(167) http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-2/134-142.htm

(168) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3521461/

(169) https://goo.gl/CKdRbW

(170) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26984349

(171) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26984349

(172) https://goo.gl/7xi241

(173) https://goo.gl/7xi241

(174) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28670223

(175) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574341

(176) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16316746

(177) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24607292

(178) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24607292

(179) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18491985

(180) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23382250

(181) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28670223

(182) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15591014

(183) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28189077

(184) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3680022/

(185) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29603506

(186) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17063146

(187) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15671224/

(188) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29363366

(189) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29307706

(190) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22286844

(191) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18463429

(192) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18463429

(193) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1873372

(194) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16184071

(195) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16184071

Medically reviewed by Dr. Fred Hui, MD, CCFP, CAFC

Terms and Conditions

Privacy Policy

Affiliate Disclosure

Disclaimer

13 Powerful Ways to Support Your Thyroid for Better Mental Health

When you know better, you do better.
— Maya Angelou
Ways-support-increase-improve-your-thyroid-hormone-for-better-mental-health-brain-hashimotos-t3-t4-thyroxine-triiodothyronine-iodine-fluoride-depression-anxiety-hypothyroidism-mycotoxins-mold-underactive-low-lllt-laser-therapy-ray-peat-gluten-pufas-oil-coconut-iodine-selenium-herbs-collagen-gelatin-glutathione-bipolar-function-naturally-hyperthyroidism-supplements-low-underactive-gland-illness-light-therapy-autoimmune-fog-deficiency-stress-mood-disorders-schizophrenia-anger-psychosis-insomnia-dementia-social-borderline-personality-ocd-adhd-gluten-inflammation-celiac-omega-BPA-PFOA-pesticides

Sometimes it may feel as if we have no control over our thoughts and emotions. Our minds can take on a life of their own, with no rhyme or reason as to why we're suddenly sad and anxious.

But there are always underlying causes of these mood swings, and with a better understanding of them, you can learn to manage and overcome them. 

Like I have, you can connect the dots, determine your underlying triggers, learn to control them and even completely eliminate them over time. 

So today I want to talk about thyroid dysfunction. It was one of the underlying issues of my chronic mental illness. 

Your thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland located in your neck below your Adam’s apple.

It’s one of your most important glands, producing hormones – thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) – which impact the health and functioning of your entire body.

In fact, normal metabolism and energy levels depend on these hormones. 

Your thyroid also plays a key role in the optimal health and functioning of your brain. It can impact your cognition, concentration, mood, memory and emotions. 

So when your thyroid hormones are out of balance, you can be too, and brain and mental problems can arise.

Your thyroid can either be overactive and produce too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism), or underactive and produce too little thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism).

Hypothyroidism (low thyroid) is much more common, and since I personally struggled with symptoms of hypothyroidism, this post will mostly focus on that.

Ways-support-increase-improve-your-thyroid-hormone-for-better-mental-health-brain-hashimotos-t3-t4-thyroxine-triiodothyronine-iodine-fluoride-depression-anxiety-hypothyroidism-mycotoxins-mold-underactive-low-lllt-laser-therapy-ray-peat-gluten-pufas-oil-coconut-iodine-selenium-herbs-collagen-gelatin-glutathione-bipolar-function-naturally-hyperthyroidism-supplements-low-underactive-gland-illness-light-therapy-autoimmune-fog-deficiency-stress-mood-disorders-schizophrenia-anger-psychosis-insomnia-dementia-social-borderline-personality-ocd-adhd-gluten-inflammation-celiac-omega- BPA-PFOA-pesticides

Hypothyroidism can also be caused by an autoimmune conditions called Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in which the body’s immune system attacks the thyroid tissue.

According to Dr. Datis Kharrazian, author of Why Isn’t My Brain Working? and Why Do I Still Have Thyroid Symptoms?, 90% of people with hypothyroidism have Hashimoto’s. 

Here are some of the common brain and mental health symptoms of low thyroid that I experienced:

  • Chronic fatigue

  • Brain fog

  • Low mood

  • Forgetfulness

  • Weakness

  • Sluggishness

Sounds just like depression, doesn’t it?

You Don't Have Mental Illness, You Have Thyroid Problems

Many studies show that people with cognitive, emotional and behavioural disturbances have lower levels of thyroid hormone than the general population, and their psychiatric symptoms improve when they take thyroid hormone.

The following symptoms and disorders have been linked to thyroid problems (69-86): 

  • Depression

  • Anxiety

  • Bipolar disorder, mania and mood swings

  • Irritability and rage

  • Insomnia

  • Paranoid schizophrenia and psychosis

  • Dementia and confusion

  • Social anxiety disorder

  • Generalized anxiety disorder

  • Borderline personality disorder

  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

In fact, many people struggling with these conditions see better improvements when they are treated with thyroid hormone than when they are treated with psychiatric medication (and experience fewer side effects). 

Psychiatric patients with subclinical hypothyroidism - especially those with incomplete responses to psychotropic therapy - should usually be treated with thyroid hormone. In some patients with no clear evidence of a biochemical or clinical thyroid disorder, mood symptoms nevertheless respond to thyroid hormone.
— Thomas D. Geracioti Jr, MD

A number of different medical practitioners and researchers have written books about how thyroid problems can negatively affect brain and contribute to mental illness:

So if you struggle with brain or mental illness, you likely do not need a prescription for antidepressants, antipsychotics and anti-anxiety medication. What you really need is to support your thyroid. Treating the underlying thyroid problem is critical to alleviating the associated psychiatric symptoms.

Luckily, there are easy, natural ways for you to do just that.

Below are 13 main strategies I’ve used to balance my thyroid hormones and improve thyroid function. 

Before implementing all of them, I highly recommend getting a full thyroid panel (like this one) so that you know your starting point. True Health Labs allows you to order their Complete Thyroid Panel even without a doctor. 

Click here to subscribe

1. Cut Out Gluten

Certain foods can disrupt proper thyroid function and you should avoid them to optimize brain and mental health. 

Gluten-containing grains (barley, wheat, rye, spelt) are the worst offenders.  

Ways-support-increase-improve-your-thyroid-hormone-for-better-mental-health-brain-hashimotos-t3-t4-thyroxine-triiodothyronine-iodine-fluoride-depression-anxiety-hypothyroidism-mycotoxins-mold-underactive-low-lllt-laser-therapy-ray-peat-gluten-pufas-oil-coconut-iodine-selenium-herbs-collagen-gelatin-glutathione-bipolar-function-naturally-hyperthyroidism-supplements-low-underactive-gland-illness-light-therapy-autoimmune-fog-deficiency-stress-mood-disorders-schizophrenia-anger-psychosis-insomnia-dementia-social-borderline-personality-ocd-adhd-gluten-inflammation-celiac-omega- BPA-PFOA-pesticides

The problem with gluten is that it can increase intestinal permeability (leaky gut syndrome). When this happens, small particles of food can leak into your bloodstream. Your immune system sees these food particles as foreign entities and attacks them, increasing inflammation throughout your body. 

On top of this, the molecular structure of gliadin (the protein found in gluten) resembles that of the thyroid gland. So when gliadin enters your bloodstream, your immune system not only attacks the gliadin, but also your thyroid tissue because of its close resemblance. And this can cause many brain and mental health problems (11-13). 

Research shows that people with celiac disease and gluten intolerance are more likely to have thyroid diseases and mental illnesses, and vice versa (1-10). 

Many people that have hypothyroidism really have gluten sensitivity. Over time, they actually have significant brain degeneration. When people degenerate their brain, one of the first things they get is depression.
— Dr. Datis Kharrazian

Thyroid function, and therefore brain and mental health, will often improve after the elimination of gluten-containing grains. 

2. Eat Enough Calories and Carbohydrates

Making sure you eat enough calories and carbohydrates on a daily basis is critical for optimal thyroid and brain function.  

A landmark paper, known as the Vermont Study, found that thyroid hormone drops when you don’t eat enough calories and carbohydrates (14). 

Ways-support-increase-improve-your-thyroid-hormone-for-better-mental-health-brain-hashimotos-t3-t4-thyroxine-triiodothyronine-iodine-fluoride-depression-anxiety-hypothyroidism-mycotoxins-mold-underactive-low-lllt-laser-therapy-ray-peat-gluten-pufas-oil-coconut-iodine-selenium-herbs-collagen-gelatin-glutathione-bipolar-function-naturally-hyperthyroidism-supplements-low-underactive-gland-illness-light-therapy-autoimmune-fog-deficiency-stress-mood-disorders-schizophrenia-anger-psychosis-insomnia-dementia-social-borderline-personality-ocd-adhd-gluten-inflammation-celiac-omega- BPA-PFOA-pesticides-potatoes

Several other studies also show that ketogenic low-carb diets can suppress thyroid function and reduce thyroid hormone. This is because carbohydrates play a key role on the production of thyroid hormone (15-18). 

In previous posts, I have mentioned that fasting and ketogenic dieting can have beneficial effects on your brain. This is still true. However, it's important to note fasting and low-carb diets should be followed intermittently and not consistently over long stretches of time, mainly because of their detrimental effects on the thyroid. I prefer to take Optimal Ketones instead. They immediately increase my mental clarity without having to restrict carbohydrates. 

My Free Grocery Shopping Guide for Optimal Brain Health contains plenty of healthy, nutrient-dense sources of carbohydrate, including:

  • Yams

  • Squash

  • Potatoes

  • Carrots

  • Other root vegetables

  • Berries

  • Apples

  • Bananas

  • Raw honey

3. Avoid Vegetable Oils

You should also significantly limit all refined vegetable oils, including soybean, corn, safflower, sunflower, and canola. 

These oils are predominantly made up of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are highly unstable and oxidize very easily within your body. 

Unfortunately, like gluten, rancid PUFAs are everywhere and hard to avoid. Most commercially-prepared processed foods include them. 

And your thyroid is particularly vulnerable to their effects.

Dr. Raymond Peat, PhD, says that the sudden increase of fragile and rancid polyunsaturated oils into our food supply after World War II has caused many changes in human health, particularly thyroid function and hormones: 

Their [polyunsaturated oils] best understood effect is their interference with the function of the thyroid gland. Unsaturated oils block thyroid hormone secretion, its movement in the circulatory system, and the response of tissues to the hormone. By 1950, then, it was established that unsaturated fats suppress the metabolic rate, apparently creating hypothyroidism. The more unsaturated the oils are, the more specifically they suppress tissue response to thyroid hormone, and transport of the hormone on the thyroid transport protein. And in 1980, experimenters demonstrated that young rats fed milk containing soy oil incorporated the oil directly into their brain cells, and had structurally abnormal brain cells as a result.
Click here to subscribe

4. Eat coconut oil

I’ve discussed the brain and mental health benefits of coconut oil before here

It can help reduce brain fog and enhance your cognitive performance. And it may be accomplishing this by supporting your thyroid. 

According to Dr. Raymond Peat, coconut oil is very beneficial to the brain and thyroid:

Coconut oil has a general pro-thyroid action by diluting and displacing anti-thyroid unsaturated oils. And brain tissue is very rich in complex forms of fats. An experiment in which pregnant mice were given diets containing either coconut oil or unsaturated oil showed that brain development was superior in the young mice whose mothers ate coconut oil. Because coconut oil supports thyroid function, and thyroid governs brain development, including myelination, the result might simply reflect the difference between normal and hypothyroid individuals.

I recommend this coconut oil

And you don’t need to stick with coconut oil. Coconut milk, water and meat are other ways to get the benefits of coconut. 

5. Try Low-level Laser Therapy (LLLT)

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is probably the best cutting-edge way to support your thyroid. I wrote about it previously here.  

Using it on my thyroid has made a remarkable difference in my energy levels and mental clarity. And this is likely because of an increase in my thyroid hormones. 

Multiple studies show that LLLT can improve the production of thyroid hormones and improve thyroid function in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroid disease. Study participants were able to reduce the dosage of their thyroid medication (36, 37).  

A study from Brazil showed that LLLT not only reduced the need for thyroid medication in all patients, but 9 months later after the study concluded, it also showed that 47% of patients no longer required any thyroid medication at all.  Participants with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis also saw a reduction in their anti-thyroid antibodies by more than 39% (40). 

A Russian study also demonstrated a 97% success rate when treating women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Researchers concluded LLLT should be the “method of choice in the treatment of [subclinical hypothyroidism], especially in the elderly” (40). 

Animal research has found similar results in rats and rabbits (38, 39). 

I shine the Platinum Therapy Lights Bio-450 (Combo Red/NIR) device on my thyroid. It includes both red and infrared light. I’m convinced most people would benefit from it. If you decide to get it, you can use the coupon code OPTIMAL for a 5% discount.

Infrared saunas are another excellent way to expose yourself to infrared light and support thyroid function. Check out my post about the benefits here

6. Get Enough Vitamin A and D

Fat soluble vitamins A and D are also critical for optimal thyroid and brain function.

Vitamin D is necessary to help transport thyroid hormone into your cells and deficiency is quite common in people with thyroid problems. Vitamin D deficiency is also associated with thyroid disease and supplementation has been shown to benefit the thyroid. (22-24). 

I previously discussed the brain health benefits of vitamin D here. I now use this Vitamin D lamp to make sure my levels are optimal. 

Vitamin A helps your body produce thyroid hormone and protects the thyroid gland from oxidative stress (which is higher in people with thyroid issues). Research also shows that vitamin A can reduce your risk of hypothyroidism (19-21). 

However, I personally don’t recommend you supplement with vitamin A. It’s better to get it from food. Pastured eggs, grass-fed liver and butter (or ghee if you can't tolerate butter) are ideal sources. 

Cod liver oil is another great option as it contains both vitamin A, vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids all together. I take this one every so often.

7. Get Enough Minerals

Your thyroid gland needs specific trace minerals to do its job properly. 

I take and recommend this multi-mineral supplement so that you have all the minerals you need to support brain and thyroid health. It includes a small amount of iodine, selenium, magnesium and zinc.

Iodine is the most important, as it’s one of the building blocks used by your thyroid to create hormones. 

However, I don’t recommend supplementing with large doses of iodine separately. Many functional medicine practitioners that I’ve interviewed over the years have told me that high iodine intake through supplements can often do more harm than good. Too much supplemental iodine has been shown to cause further thyroid problems (66-68). 

brazil-nuts-Ways-support-increase-improve-your-thyroid-hormone-for-better-mental-health-brain-hashimotos-t3-t4-thyroxine-triiodothyronine-iodine-fluoride-depression-anxiety-hypothyroidism-mycotoxins-mold-underactive-low-lllt-laser-therapy-ray-peat-gluten-pufas-oil-coconut-iodine-selenium-herbs-collagen-gelatin-glutathione-bipolar-function-naturally-hyperthyroidism-supplements-low-underactive-gland-illness-light-therapy-autoimmune-fog-deficiency-stress-mood-disorders-schizophrenia-anger-psychosis-insomnia-dementia-social-borderline-personality-ocd-adhd-gluten-inflammation-celiac-omega- BPA-PFOA-pesticides

So I think the small amount in a multi-mineral is enough.

And getting some more iodine from whole foods, including seafood and sea vegetables, can also benefit you since they contain other nutrients that can support your thyroid.  

Selenium is another indispensable mineral for your thyroid and brain health.

It helps regulate and recycle your iodine stores, and selenium-based proteins help regulate thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism.

Without it, you’ll likely experience low-thyroid symptoms.

Brazil nuts are the richest dietary source of selenium. 

Low levels of zinc can also lead to depleted thyroid hormones, and vice versa (34). This is just another reason to supplement with zinc.

As I’ve discussed before, a zinc deficiency can also contribute to stress and anxiety.

And although it isn't mentioned very often, magnesium is also critical for optimal thyroid function. The thyroid gland can't function properly without it (89).

I previously discussed how it can help a lot of people with depression and anxiety here

Click here to subscribe

8. Reduce Stress and Cortisol

High levels of physical and mental stress can be detrimental to your thyroid function. 

Your adrenal glands –  two walnut-shaped glands that sit atop the kidneys – secrete your stress stress hormones, such as cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine. 

Research shows that cortisol inhibits thyroid hormones from getting into your cells, and weakened adrenal glands can lead to hypothyroid symptoms over time (35).

That’s why it’s critical that you manage stress.

I highly recommend you try to do something every day to manage it. 

The most effective way to significantly and permanently reduce your stress and anxiety is neurofeedback. It’s advanced, guided meditation and I previously wrote about my experience with it here

Ways-support-increase-improve-your-thyroid-hormone-for-better-mental-health-brain-hashimotos-t3-t4-thyroxine-triiodothyronine-iodine-fluoride-depression-anxiety-hypothyroidism-mycotoxins-mold-underactive-low-lllt-laser-therapy-ray-peat-gluten-pufas-oil-coconut-iodine-selenium-herbs-collagen-gelatin-glutathione-bipolar-function-naturally-hyperthyroidism-supplements-low-underactive-gland-illness-light-therapy-autoimmune-fog-deficiency-stress-mood-disorders-schizophrenia-anger-psychosis-insomnia-dementia-social-borderline-personality-ocd-adhd-gluten-inflammation-celiac-omega- BPA-PFOA-pesticides

If you can’t access neurofeedback, taking up a daily meditation practice is an excellent idea. 

I’m a big fan of the Muse headband . It can guide your meditation. Similar to neurofeedback, it gives you real-time feedback while you meditate. I wrote an entire review about it here, and you can get it through Amazon or the Muse website

I also find massage, acupuncture, heart-rate variability (HRV) training and this acupressure mat very helpful as well.

Lying on the acupressure mat while using my EmWave2 for just 10 minutes relaxes my entire body and mind. I do this at night before bed. 

Supplements that can help with stress include zinc, ashwagandha and phosphatidylserine, which have been shown to lower cortisol levels (87, 88). 

This anti-anxiety supplement also includes a number of natural compounds that have helped me manage my stress over the years (Use the the coupon code FIVE$45496275 for a 5% discount).

Lastly, you should get enough sleep and don’t exercise too much. The stress caused by excessive exercise can wear you’re your body and contribute to thyroid problems. So make sure you get plenty of rest and recover between workout sessions.

9. Take Thyroid-Supporting Herbs

A number of different herbs can assist your thyroid gland. 

Ashwagandha is one of my favourites. Not only can it reduce stress and anxiety, but a number of studies show that it can boost thyroid hormones (25-29).

Bacopa is another adaptogen that has been shown to increase thyroid (T4) hormone levels by 42% (30). 

Forskolin stimulates the release of thyroid hormones (31). 

And one study found that ginseng increases and normalizes thyroid hormone levels (32). 

And last but not least, researchers say that rhodiola can “improve the quality of life of patients with short-term hypothyroidism” (33). 

Rhodiola also has a number of brain and mental health benefits. I explored them previously here

I’ve experimented with all of these herbs and they have improved my brain and mental health.

But it’s good to know they have some beneficial effects on my thyroid as well.

This mental health supplement includes bacopa, forskolin and rhodiola all in one supplement. 

10. Eat “Head to Tail”

Whole plant foods tend to be much healthier when they’re left whole, as they tend to have various nutrients that work together synergistically. 

The same can be said about animal food. 

Muscle meats contain so much tryptophan and cysteine that a pure meat diet can suppress the thyroid. In poor countries, people have generally eaten all parts of the animal, rather than just the muscles – bones, cartilage, skin, organs, and other odd bits. About half of the protein in an animal is collagen, and collagen is deficient in tryptophan and cysteine. This means that, in the whole animal, the amino acid balance is similar to the adult’s requirements.
— Dr. Raymond Peat

In other words, muscle meat (chicken breasts, lean beef) shouldn’t be your only source of animal protein. Our ancestors didn’t eat this way, so neither should we.  

Your body and thyroid prefer and expect to receive a balance of amino acids from different parts of whole animals.

That’s why I recommend “head-to-tail eating” – consuming a wide variety of proteins from the entire animal. 

Along with muscle meat, you should regularly cook and eat organ meats such as liver and bone broth.

bone-broth-collagen-gelatin-Ways-support-increase-improve-your-thyroid-hormone-for-better-mental-health-brain-hashimotos-t3-t4-thyroxine-triiodothyronine-iodine-fluoride-depression-anxiety-hypothyroidism-mycotoxins-mold-underactive-low-lllt-laser-therapy-ray-peat-gluten-pufas-oil-coconut-iodine-selenium-herbs-collagen-gelatin-glutathione-bipolar-function-naturally-hyperthyroidism-supplements-low-underactive-gland-illness-light-therapy-autoimmune-fog-deficiency-stress-mood-disorders-schizophrenia-anger-psychosis-insomnia-dementia-social-borderline-personality-ocd-adhd-gluten-inflammation-celiac-omega- BPA-PFOA-pesticides

Bone broth contains collagen, gelatin and amino acids such as glycine and proline that help the body better metabolize muscle meat.

Organ meats such as liver have an abundance of beneficial nutrients that aren’t found in muscle meat alone. For example, it’s much higher in vitamin A, which is important for optimal thyroid health (19, 20). 

I previously discussed the benefits of liver in more depth here.

I personally don’t like the taste of liver and bone broth can be inconvenient to make all the time, so I often supplement with these grass-fed beef liver capsules and drink this high-quality pre-made bone broth.

I also take this Multi-Glandular For Men, which contains a number of different organ tissues. There is also one for women

But if you’re actually interested in learning about how to cook and incorporate more whole animal proteins into your diet, I recommend checking out the book “Odd Bits: How to Cook the Rest of the Animal” by Jennifer McLagan.

11. Limit Halogens

Your thyroid doesn’t know the difference between iodine, and other halogens such as bromine, fluorine, chlorine, and perchlorate, which are often found in tap water. 

So your thyroid soaks them up and uses them like iodine.

By occupying iodine receptors, they worsen iodine deficiency, inhibit the production of your thyroid hormones and contribute to thyroid dysfunction.

Studies show that chlorine interferes with proper conversion of thyroid hormone (50, 58-61). 

That’s why I recommend filtering your drinking and shower water. Brita filters aren't enough because they don’t remove fluoride. I use this Berkey water filter to make sure I’m drinking the purest water available. It filters everything out of the water. I also use this filter to remove chlorine from my shower water. 

The research shows that bromide in particular can cause a lot of problems. Bromide is found in pesticides, prescription medication, plastic products and personal care products. PBDE (bromide) fire retardants have been added to mattresses, carpeting, electronics, furniture and car interiors since the 1970s. 

Even small amounts of bromide can be problematic, depleting iodine and weakening the thyroid gland. Bromide levels are 50 times higher in thyroid cancer than normal thyroid tissue, and elevated levels of bromide have been linked to mental illness, including depression and schizophrenia (50-57). 

12. Avoid Environmental and Dietary Mycotoxins

Mycotoxins – toxic metabolites produced by mold – can also disrupt normal thyroid function.

Mycotoxins are released into the air in water-damaged buildings, and you may not realize it’s affecting your brain and thyroid health until you develop certain symptoms. And even then, people frequently won’t make the connection between the mold and their health. 

That’s what happened to me, and my hormonal health went downhill, along with my brain and mental health. Luckily I’ve recovered since then

Mycotoxins are known hormone disruptors that cause inflammation, and a couple of studies mention that there is an increased frequency of “thyroid, immune dysfunction and autoimmune conditions” in people exposed to water-damaged building (41, 42). 

Ways-support-increase-improve-your-thyroid-hormone-for-better-mental-health-brain-hashimotos-t3-t4-thyroxine-triiodothyronine-iodine-fluoride-depression-anxiety-hypothyroidism-mycotoxins-mold-underactive-low-lllt-laser-therapy-ray-peat-gluten-pufas-oil-coconut-iodine-selenium-herbs-collagen-gelatin-glutathione-bipolar-function-naturally-hyperthyroidism-supplements-low-underactive-gland-illness-light-therapy-autoimmune-fog-deficiency-stress-mood-disorders-schizophrenia-anger-psychosis-insomnia-dementia-social-borderline-personality-ocd-adhd-gluten-inflammation-celiac-omega- BPA-PFOA-pesticides

And one study shows that mold exposure is correlated with hypothyroidism and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (43). 

Kurt and Lee Ann Billings wrote the book Mold: The War Within after extensive personal bouts with toxic mold exposure. They write extensively about their experience and recovery and describe ongoing problems with thyroid dysfunction. 

After I moved out of the moldy home, I became extremely sensitive to any environmental mold and mycotoxins. 

I now use this air filter in my apartment. It removes any mold spores and smoke that may be in the air.

Low amounts of mycotoxins are often found in some seemingly healthy foods, such as tea, nuts, grains, coffee and chocolate. I recommend finding the freshest, highest-quality, organic versions of these foods.

Lastly, if exposed to mold or their toxins, you should supplement with activated charcoal or bentonite clay.

Activated charcoal and bentonite clay are potent natural treatments that can trap toxins and chemicals, allowing them to be flushed out of your body.

13. Avoid and Remove Other Environmental Toxins

Mold and other halogens aren’t the only endocrine disruptors in your environment that can affect your thyroid metabolism and function.

In the book Thyroid Mind Power, Dr. Karilee Shames reports that “the last 40 years have witnessed a massive increase in the amount of hormone-disrupting synthetic chemicals, finding their way into our air, food and water. The most sensitive and highly susceptible of human tissues turned out to be the thyroid gland.”

Here are some common ones:

Ways-support-increase-improve-your-thyroid-hormone-for-better-mental-health-brain-hashimotos-t3-t4-thyroxine-triiodothyronine-iodine-fluoride-depression-anxiety-hypothyroidism-mycotoxins-mold-underactive-low-lllt-laser-therapy-ray-peat-gluten-pufas-oil-coconut-iodine-selenium-herbs-collagen-gelatin-glutathione-bipolar-function-naturally-hyperthyroidism-supplements-low-underactive-gland-illness-light-therapy-autoimmune-fog-deficiency-stress-mood-disorders-schizophrenia-anger-psychosis-insomnia-dementia-social-borderline-personality-ocd-adhd-gluten-inflammation-celiac-omega- BPA-PFOA-pesticides
  • Bisphenol A – found in plastic bottles and containers. I recommend you only eat and drink out of glass, ceramic and stainless steel. Avoid storing any of your food in plastic too. BPA-free plastic isn’t much better for you and can still disrupt hormonal health.

  • Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) – found in common household products including non-stick cookware and waterproof fabrics. Researchers have found that people with higher levels of PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) have a higher incidence of thyroid disease (44, 45).

  • Other pesticides and chemical additives – You should avoid processed food and eat organic as often as possible, wash all produce thoroughly to minimize your pesticide exposure, and find personal care products that don’t include toxic chemicals.

I also recommend increasing your levels of glutathione – your body’s main antioxidant and master detoxifier – to help your body combat the above substances from your body. I do this by supplementing with this liposomal glutathione on regular basis. 

Or you could take NAC and Vitamin C to help your body produce more of its own glutathione. 

Researchers have found that a decrease in thyroid function could be reversed by NAC supplementation, which increased glutathione. This is because glutathione plays a key role in the production and conversion of your thyroid hormones (46-49). 

Epsom salt baths, infrared saunas, and turmeric can also help your body release and remove environmental toxins. 

Summary and Conclusion

With the right information, you can make simple choices to improve thyroid health.

Here's a summary of everything we've gone over:

Ways-support-increase-improve-your-thyroid-hormone-for-better-mental-health-brain-hashimotos-t3-t4-thyroxine-triiodothyronine-iodine-fluoride-depression-anxiety-hypothyroidism-mycotoxins-mold-underactive-low-lllt-laser-therapy-ray-peat-gluten-pufas-oil-coconut-iodine-selenium-herbs-collagen-gelatin-glutathione-bipolar-function-naturally-hyperthyroidism-supplements-low-underactive-gland-illness-light-therapy-autoimmune-fog-deficiency-stress-mood-disorders-schizophrenia-anger-psychosis-insomnia-dementia-social-borderline-personality-ocd-adhd-gluten-inflammation-celiac-omega- BPA-PFOA-pesticides

So with that, I want to leave you with a quote from a book I read recently by Sam Harris, called Free Will. It's an excellent book and you can get it through Amazon if you're interested.

I think this quote is appropriate considering the wide variety of factors that underlie brain and mental health problems:

Becoming sensitive to the background causes of one’s thoughts and feelings can - paradoxically - allow for greater creative control over one’s life. It is one thing to bicker with your wife because you are in a bad mood; it is another to realize that your mood and behaviour have been caused by low blood sugar. This understanding reveals you to be a biochemical puppet, of course, but it also allows you to grab hold of one of your strings: A bite of food may be all your personality requires. Getting behind our conscious thoughts and feelings can allow us to steer a more intelligent course through our lives (while knowing, of course, that we are ultimately being steered).

So even though it seems like there are an overwhelming amount of “strings” to pull, realize that you don’t have to pull them all at once.

You just have to start with one, and go from there.

And then over time, you'll start to get a handle on all of them, and you'll heal.

Enjoy This Article? You Might Also Like My FREE Food Guide for Optimal Brain and Mental Health!

Click here to subscribe

Live Optimally,

Jordan Fallis

Connect with me

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11280546

(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12217453

(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11123714

(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10529537

(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2111403/

(6) http://www.eje-online.org/content/130/2/137.abstract

(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15244201

(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9872614

(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12919165

(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11768252

(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12366374

(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19014325

(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1808742/

(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC371281/

(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6761185

(16) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3740086

(17) http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/35/1/24.full.pdf

(18) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1249190

(19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6470830

(20) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23378454

(21) http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/34/8/1489.abstract

(22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3921055/

(23) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12919165

(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10750047

(25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19789214

(26) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21432907

(27) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1211/146080800128735782/abstract

(28) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9811169

(29) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10619390

(30) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037887410200048X

(31) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6327383

(32) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6327383

(33) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20946017

(34) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746228/

(35) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17002934

(36) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20662037

(37) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22718472

(38) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25265487

(39) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25975382

(40) http://valtsus.blogspot.ca/2015/09/hypothyroidism-could-it-be-treated-with.html

(41) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3654247/

(42) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15143854

(43) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/430949

(44) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24407430

(45) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2866686/

(46) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21540553?dopt=Abstract

(47)https://www.researchgate.net/publication/12044880_Effect_of_Glutathione_GSH_Depletion_on_the_Serum_Levels_of_Triiodothyronine_T_3_Thyroxine_T_4_and_T_3_T_4_Ratio_in_Allyl_AlcoholTreated_Male_Rats_and_Possible_Protection_With_Zinc

(48) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7408784

(49) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7052928

(50) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8909694

(51) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15255296

(52) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10999431

(53) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9542578

(54) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9341949

(55) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8909694

(56) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6548284

(57) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8909694

(58) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3890436/

(59) http://www .ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1087230

(60) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19318504

(61) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3956646/

(62) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9140329

(63) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21001996

(64) www.gulflink.osd.mil/library/randrep/pb_paper/mr1018.2chap10.html

(65) http://www.optimox.com/iodine-study-18

(66) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7477223

(67) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20517655?dopt=AbstractPlus

(68) http://www.eymj.org/Synapse/Data/PDFData/0069YMJ/ymj-44-227.pdf

(69) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15213796

(70) http://www.drrichardhall.com/Articles/hashimoto.pdf

(71) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11958781

(72) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17141745

(73) http://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-244X-4-25

(74) http://cpementalhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-0179-1-23

(75) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19215985

(76) http://www.ccjm.org/index.php?id=107937&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=359985&cHash=260c2e3470893b3cb8daee104f8cdf36

(77) http://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/thyroid-deficiency-and-mental-health

(78) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20404728

(79) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27268005

(80) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24480318

(81) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24480318

(82) http://www.eje-online.org/content/138/1/1.full.pdf

(83) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24443228

(84) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24345793

(85) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3013313/

(86) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380316

(87) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23439798

(88) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1325348

(89) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6747732

Medically reviewed by Dr. Robert Blake Gibb, MD

Terms and Conditions

Privacy Policy

Affiliate Disclosure

Disclaimer

How to Fight Alzheimer's Disease with Intranasal Insulin

Insulin is one of the hormones that can powerfully affect cognitive function. It's been shown to pass the blood-brain barrier and act on insulin receptors directly within the brain.

Read More